Network Pharmacology Analysis of the Mechanisms of Sang Ju Yin for COVID-19 Treatment
Abstract – In the search for treatment of the 2019 coronavirus disease (COVID-19), traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) such as Sang Ju Yin has held substantial promise in reducing mortality rates and promoting recovery. However, the exact targets and mechanisms of Sang Ju Yin in COVID-19 resistance have not been extensively explored. Therefore, the objective of this study was to use network pharmacology to identify the interactions between Sang Ju Yin and COVID-19. A total of 170 active ingredients and 1476 targets of Sang Ju Yin were retrieved from multiple databases and combined with 1313 COVID-19 targets to obtain 233 common targets. These core targets were integrated into a protein-protein interaction (PPI) network and active ingredient-disease-target network using STRING and Cytoscape software. Gene ontology (GO) and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) pathway analyses were performed using DAVID and Metascape to determine related biological processes and signaling pathways. The results indicate that Sang Ju Yin likely regulates inflammatory, immune, and apoptotic responses in COVID-19 by targeting AKT1, IL-6, and MAPK3. Its active ingredients luteolin, kaempferol, and quercetin physically bind to and inhibit the angiotensin converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) and 3-chymotrypsin-like protease (3CLpro) required for viral invasion and replication. The results of this study provide evidence for the therapeutic effects of Sang Ju Yin on COVID-19 and support the application of TCM for treatment worldwide.